Teaching
Connecting Service & Learning: Reflection & Evaluation Techniques Connecting Service & Learning: Reflection & Evaluation Techniques Toolkit for Service Learning in Political Science

To connect community service to academic learning, service-learning projects supplement the service experience with structured reflection activities. During reflection, participants are encouraged to relate their service observations to the scholarly theories presented in their corresponding course. Popular reflection techniques include journaling, essay assignments, and discussion sessions. Together with traditional academic testing, these reflection projects are an excellent tool for evaluating student learning throughout the term. In some cases, faculty are assisted in scheduling and conducting reflection activities by trained service-learning coordinators, service-learning teaching assistants, or student volunteers.

Campus Compact's Reflection Site provides a comprehensive introduction to reflection techniques and materials.

Cooper, David. 1998. "Reading, Writing, and Reflection" in Robert Rhoads and Jeffrey Howard, ed., Academic Service-Learning: A Pedagogy of Action and Reflection. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 47-56.

Eyler, J., D. Giles, and E. Schmiede. 1996. A Practitioner's Guide to Reflection in Service-learning: Student Voices and Reflections. A Technical Assistance Project funded by the Corporation for National Service. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University.

Hatcher, Julie A. and Robert G. Bringle. 1997. "Reflection: Bridging the Gap Between Service and Learning." College Teaching, v45n4: 153-8.

Kottkamp, R. "Means for Facilitating Reflection." Education and Urban Society, 22(2): 182-203.

Ogden, Curtis, and Jeff Claus. 1997. "Reflection as A Natural Element of Service: Service Learning for Youth Empowerment." Equity and Excellence in Education, v30n1: 72-73.

Reflection: The Key to Service Learning: A Guide for Program Leaders. 1998. New York: National Helpers Network.

Williams, Dilafruz and Amy Driscoll. 1997. "Connecting Curriculum Content with Community Service: Guidelines for Facilitating Student Reflection." Journal of Public Service and Outreach, v2n1: 33-42.